Solution Of Socialogy Assignment

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Solution Of Socialogy Assignment

Post by SilverEye on Tue Jul 08, 2008 10:18 pm

WOMEN AND ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN

ABSTRACT
In the rural areas of Pakistan, agriculture land is owned by men and they use family labour including women for producing crops. Women are not paid but are fed, clothed and provided dowery by father at time of marriage, ornaments from cradle to grave and are not mourned as men are. Their mud covered graves are leveled up by occasional rain run off. In recent years some families educate them so that chances of marriage in well to do families are ensured.

Sindh Rural Women's Uplift Group tried to help women by engaging a number of them between 10-15 on the farm under the guidance of women Farm Supervisors, paid same salaries as men and gave them similar hobs to perform. Their monthly out put of two groups of men and women were being compared. The women were the best in case of mowing, grasses for mulch, collecting fallen leaves, twigs, bark and etc.

Their full time employment in sustainable agriculture in the past 2 years, in preference to men has changed the life pattern of a group of 12 women consisting of one couple of parents, their daughters, daughter-in-laws and nieces. In two years since starting of operations house-hold life pattern of these families has changed. In the beginning men took away all the salaries of women but gradually women have asserted and now they are better clothed a women have asserted and now they are better clothed and say that they will send their children to the school. Man's attitude toward the social set-up in the house has changed some what and are a little more considerate but, time may bring about further changes.


Women in Pakistan agriculture, can perform the following functions as good as men:

Transplanting of vegetables, rice, and bare root plants.
Intercultivation of vegetable of removal of weeds and unwanted growth.
Picking of cotton, small fruits, vegetables, berries of all types, harvesting of wheat, rice and other crops.
They however excel men in all those operations which require squatting to carryout operations near the ground and keep moving simultaneously.
This is because the pelvic bone of females has different angle with thigh bone and it makes women's movements easy in that pasture. This involves moving of grass, Intercultivation of weeds or picking of fruits.


We made a beginning two years ago and the results are astonishing.




INTRODUCTION

The province of Sindh in Pakistan lying between 23O-40' and 28O-30'N and 66O-40' and 71O-10'E for the year 1994-95, in Sindh the total cropping area was 3.50 million hectares, while the total country area under cropping was 22.14 million hectares. The conventional fruit crops raised in Sindh are manmillion hectares. The conventional fruit crops raised in Sindh are mangoes, guava, grapefruit, lemon, lime, sapodilla, cherimoya, coconut, lychee and zizyphus mauritiana.

Sindh region has a subtropical climate. It receives between 100-550 chill units and 3700-4500 heat units. Its climate gives it a great potential for new crops.






WOMEN AND ORGANIC FARMING

Female labour force participation is found in agriculture and in animal husbandry in Pakistan. According to the statistical compendium on Women in Asia and the Pacific in 1981 the country total ittiteracy rate was 84.8%, while urban area have 65.3% and illiteracy rate in rural area was 92.7%.


In the rural areas of Pakistan, agriculture land owned by men and they use family labour including women for producing crops. Women are not paid but are fed, clothes and provided dowery shelter by sons. They usually transact no cash from cradle to gave and are not mourned as men are. Their mud covered graves are leveled up by occasional rains run-off. In recent years some families educate them so that chances of marriage in well to do families are ensured.


Sindh Rural Women's Uplift Group tried to help women by engaging 1Rural Women's Uplift Group tried to help women by engaging 10-15 on the farm under the guidance of women Farm supervisors, paid same salaries as men and gave them similar jobs to perform. Their out put was more than men, when both parties knew that daily, weekly and monthly out put of two groups of men and women were being compared. The women were the best in case of mowing, Grasses for mulch, collecting fallen leaves, twigs, bark and etc.


Their full time employment in sustainable agriculture in the past 2 years, in preference to men has changed the life pattern of a group of 12 women consisting of one couple of parents, their daughters, daughter-in-laws and nieces. In two years since starting of operations house-hold life pattern of these families has changed. In the beginning men took away all the salaries of women but gradually women have asserted and now they are better clothed and say that they will send their children to the school. Man's attitude toward the social setup in the house has changed some what and are a little more considerate but, time may bring about further changes.


Women in Pakistan agriculture, can perform the following functions as good as men:


Transplanting of vegetables, rice, and bare root plants.
Intercultivation of vegetable for removal of weed and unwanted growth.
Picking of cotton, small fruits, vegetables, berries of all types, harvesting of wheat, rice and other crops. They however excel men in all those operations which require squatting to carryout operations near the ground and keep moving simultaneously.
This is because the pelvic bone of females has different angle with thigh bone and it makes women's movements easy in that posture. This involves mowing of grass, Intercultivation of weeds or picking of fruits.


We made a beginning two years ago and the results are astonishing.




FUTURE

Future work should add a resource conservation and environment friendly objective to all ongoing and anticipated agricultural research and development projects.
New technologies and approaches are needed for the fragile environment.
Research is needed to analyse and guide on the long-term sustainability agro-ecosystem its ecological, economic and social impact on the rural society.
New research must be based on all possible informations through soil ecologist, economist, agronomists, extension and guidance about the organic farming and its effect on soil, micro-organism, various diseases and performance on crops, yields and guide the farmers to adjust the copping pattern to the new changing environment.
New research and information required to provide assistance to the farmers, so they are able to make decision on alternative management practices, which include the elimination the usive management practices, which include the elimination the use of synthetic insecticide, pesticide, and fungicides. The information contains various learning methods of organic farming and its impact on the natural system and possibility of more profits.
New research based on constant flow of new information and record of production and draw back.
We have to do more research to face a new challenges and create a system, which provide better yield, nutritious and healthy food, without distorting to the natural ecosystem and produce the conversion from conventional to organic farming bring sustainable farming and sustainable development in the country.
Research is needed to analyse the organic compounds derived from the decomposition of organic mater.
To study the physical environmental variables and its effect on communities and ecosystem.
Research is needed to study ecological beneficial procedure, groups, association and their role should be strengthening.
To study various biotic and biotic factors influence, disturbing and changing the ecosystem.
Research is required to analyse and quantify the complex environmental and economic consequences of the transition from conventional to low input and organic farming systems, and to evaluate the long term environmental and economic viability of such systems.
Study the environmental diminution to agricultural development program by enhancing education work.
Applicationram by enhancing education work.
Application of post-harvest fungicide and waxes is becoming less acceptable as handling treatment. The use of hot water and hot air treatment results in to easy control and not effect on the environment.
Diversification in to other crops and extension of the harvest season with new cultivators may be beneficial.
Research is needed to develop new training material to save the environment and based on new scientific analysis design and approach.
New project must study the economic measure, environmental degration and other factors.
The future goal of agriculture in the baradest sense has been efficiency in production, more food with less expenses.
Promote gender coresponsibility with respt of agricultural production health and environment.



CONCLUSION

In brief by mulch provides macro and micro-nutrient in quantities large enough to meet the needs of most plants. By reducing pH and also by breaking up micronutrients in the mulch material it provides Copper, Zn, Mn, Bo, Mn, Fe. Vermicost excreted by earthworm cotain antibiotics, growth regulators, hormones, vitamins and etc.


Mulch regulate soil temperature eliminates use of herbicide, reduces cost of intercultiviation, and thereby reduce compaction and root dame caused by tractors and their implements.
Vermicost are also slow release fertilizers. Antibiotic kill patrmicost are also slow release fertilizers. Antibiotic kill pathogens and earthworms kill nematodes. Useful bacteria level increases many time that in non-mulch soil. Soil aeration is improved, infiltration rate increased, water holding capacity of soil increased and finally plant growth rate becomes 3 times and the first fruiting take place in less than 3 years due to improve health of the plant.
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SilverEye
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